The Birkeland Centre for Space Science (BCSS) started in March 2013. It is led from the Department of Physics and Technology at the University of Bergen (UiB) with nodes at NTNU and UNIS. The overarching scientific objective of the BCSS is to understand ”How the Earth is coupled to space”. Under this title we have formulated three main questions where we have identified fundamental gaps in our knowledge:
1. Why is geospace asymmetric and what are the important scales of its dynamics?
2. What are the effects of particle precipitation on the atmospheric system?
3. What is the role of energetic particles from thunderstorms in geospace?